A Look Inside a Bitcoin Audit - CoinDesk

Deloitte, Libra, Accenture: The work of auditors in the age of Bitcoin 2.0 technology

Deloitte, Libra, Accenture: The work of auditors in the age of Bitcoin 2.0 technology submitted by blockstreet_ceo to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Unilend Finance - Listing Soon, Moonshot Expected

Hi friends, i want to tell you about UniLend project which will be listed soon.
First of all i want to tell you, Unilend team announced that CertiK has audited UFT smart contract.
The blockchain security pioneer is one of the most advanced auditors in whole-chain, smart contracts, and VAPT verification in the scene.
Certik's best-in-class cybersecurity experts have delivered end-to-end security audits for over 220 clients, including over 118k lines of code, and now UFT smart contracts as well.
Here is the announcement by the CertiK:
UniLend is a permission-less decentralized protocol that combines spot trading services and money markets with lending and borrowing services through smart contracts.
UniLend Features
*Permissionless listing: Any ERC20 token will be able to list without any entity controlling the listing process, making UniLend’s features accessible to every token.
*Lending & borrowing: Users have the capability to unlock their token’s functionality for lending to receive an interest rate and for borrowing by paying an interest rate.
*Trading: A corresponding trading pair will also operate on UniLend's platform to include decentralized spot trading functionality for platform users.
*Governance: The protocol will be governed by its token holders through proposals in order to ensure adjustments to the protocol are made with a majority consensus.
*Liquidity: By providing liquidity for asset trading and loans on Unilend's platform, users are able to receive fees in proportion to their liquidity pool stake.
*Native Utility Token: The native utility token of UniLend will be UFT, Unilend Finance Token. The token will have multiple use cases for governance, platform utility, and much more.
How is UniLend different to existing DeFi protocols?
Existing DeFi solutions have left the majority of digital assets outside of the DeFi ecosystem. There are over 6000 tokens listed on coinmarketcap. However, the current platforms such as Compound, Aave, Maker DAO, and many more, support less than 30 assets.Some protocols offer lending and borrowing with a limited set of tokens while others offer the freedom to trade any ERC20 assets but neglect the lending and borrowing aspect.
UniLend is bridging that gap by combining the decentralization aspect of enabling any ERC20 to be utilized as collateral for lending & borrowing whilst providing the flexibility for users to also trade their assets in-platform. Ultimately, UniLend aims to unlock the full potential of digital assets for their owners.
Investors
UniLend Successfully Raises $3.1M in Seed and Private Sale Rounds Amid Overwhelming Strategic Investor Support
Unilend funding rounds attracted the attention of some of the industry’s heaviest hitters, including Woodstock Fund, Signal Ventures, 3Commas, Danish Chaudhry (Head of Bitcoin Exchange), Jay Putera (Partner at CryptoBriefing ), TRG Capital, BTC12 Capital, AU21 Capital, Youbi Capital, TomoChain, Bidesk, Bibox, Tenzor Capital, and Sandeep Nailwal (Co-founder of Matic Network).
Tokenomics
*Platform: ERC20
*Total Supply: 100,000,000 UFT
*Initial Circulating Supply: 7,777,778 (7,78%)
*Seed Round Price: $0,07 (25% released after 6 months, 25% after 12 months, 25% after 15 months and 25% after 18 months)
*Seed Round Hardcap: $700,000 (reached)
*Private Round Price: $0,12 (25% release at TGE, 25% after 3 months, 25% after 6 months and 25% after 9 months)
*Private Round Hardcap: $2,400,000 (reached)
*Public Sale: Interest form is cloesed,lottery done with partneeship Chainlink VFR, KYC process ongoing. (Hardcap: $150,000, oversubscription)
There will be a voting for Bithumb Global Listing on October 15th - 12:00 to 16:59 (UTC+8)
Conclusion
UniLend protocol is working to create a new niche in the market which has been neglected and untapped by current solutions in the DeFi space. I believe team efforts will create a level playing field in the market by enabling every token to be a part of the growing DeFi ecosystem.
submitted by walklineua to CryptoMoonShots [link] [comments]

Why you have to hire a hacker in 2020

Hiring a hacker could reveal security flaws in your organisation. The global cost of cybercrime could reach £4.9 trillion annually by 2021, according to a recent report from Cybersecurity Ventures. Cyber crime incidents continue to plague organisations globally, even as businesses pour money into boosting their security. But how do businesses deal with vulnerabilities they cannot identify? It only takes one smart hacker to discover a backdoor and get access to your sensitive data and systems. Organisations must identify the weaknesses in their cyber security, before -- not after -- they’re exploited by hackers. However, to beat a hacker you’ll need to think like one. Here’s how -- and why -- you should hire a hacker in 2020.
The stakes have never been so high
State sponsored hacking wreaked havoc in 2016 when Yahoo revealed that 1billion accounts were compromised in the largest data breach in history. And as cyber crime becomes increasingly advanced, the threat hackers pose to businesses will only increase. Leave your organisation open to a data breach and it could cost you a massive £4.25m (on average). And that’s without considering the painful remediation and brand damage you’ll be subject to as a result. These attacks aren’t restricted to huge multinationals, the latest Government Security Breaches Survey found that 74% of small organisations reported a security breach in the past year.
For any organisation, a security flaw passing undetected is a huge risk, and when GDPR hits in 2018 the stakes will only increase.
The EU General Data Protection Regulation will come into force in 2018 and will govern how businesses handle customer data. Compliance won’t be easy, and the risk of non-compliance is massive, with potential £17million fines. Big businesses aren’t safe from this, and they’ll need to boost their data security to ensure compliance. Tesco were recently lucky to escape a £1.9bn fine for a recent data breach. How hackers will boost your cyber security Not every hacker wants to attack your business and leak your sensitive data. There are hackers out there who are paid to protect, not provoke. Known as ‘white hat’ or ‘ethical hackers’, these security professionals strive to defend organisations from cyber criminals. They’re not your conventional dark web lurking delinquents. Ethical hackers are IT security experts -- trained in hacking techniques and tools -- hired to identify security vulnerabilities in computer systems and networks. According to ITJobsWatch, the average salary for an ethical hacker is £62,500. Considering the average cost of a data breach sits at £4.23m, that’s a small price to pay. Businesses and government organisations serious about IT security hire ethical hackers to probe and secure their networks, applications, and computer systems. But, unlike malicious ‘black hat’ hackers, ethical hackers will document your vulnerabilities and provide you with the knowledge you need to fix them. Organisations hire ethical hackers to conduct penetration tests - safe attacks on your computer systems designed to detect vulnerabilities. To test their security, businesses often set goals or win states for penetration tests. This could include manipulating a customer record on your database, or getting access to an admin account –potentially disastrous situations if they were achieved by malicious hackers. Ethical hackers leverage the same techniques and tools used by hackers. They might con employees over email, scan your network for vulnerabilities or barrage your servers with a crippling DDoS attack.
But instead of exploiting your business, ethical hackers will document security flaws and you’ll get actionable insight into how they can be fixed. It’s your responsibility to act on the ethical hacker’s guidance - this is where the hard work begins. Without these harmless penetration tests security holes remain unseen, leaving your organisation in a position that a malicious hacker could exploit. Not your typical dark web delinquents Thankfully, the days of hiring underground hackers and bartering with bitcoins are over. There’s now a rich pool of qualified security professionals to choose from, complete with formal ethical hacking certifications. Ethical hackers, or penetration testers, can be hired just like any other professional, but be certain to get tangible proof of your ethical hacker’s skills. Ethical hackers, or penetration testers, can be hired just like any other professional, but be certain to get tangible proof of your ethical hacker’s skills. Candidates with the CEH certification have proved they know how to use a wide range of hacking techniques and tools. What’s more, CEH certified professionals must submit to a criminal background check. These experts are committed to their profession and do not use their hacking knowledge maliciously. Despite the relative youth of the ethical hacking field, these professionals have already proved their worth to some of the largest businesses in the world. This year Facebook awarded a white hat hacker £32000 -- its largest ever bounty -- for reporting one ‘remote code execution flaw’ in their servers. That’s not the first time Facebook have paid out either. They’ve long supported the efficacy of bug bounties, having paid more than £4 million to ethical hackers since it’s program debuted in 2011.
How to hire a hacker (legally)
It’s important to understand what you actually want from your ethical hacker. Do this by creating a clear statement of expectations, provided by the organisation or an external auditor. Ethical hackers shouldn’t be hired to provide a broad overview of your policies, these professionals are specialised experts with a deep knowledge of IT security. Instead, ask specific questions like “Do we need to review our web app security?” or “Do our systems require an external penetration test?” Before hiring an ethical hacker to conduct a penetration test, businesses should ensure an inventory of systems, people and information is on-hand. Instead of hiring, many organisations develop ethical hacking skills in their own businesses by up-skilling team members through ethical hacking courses, like EC-Council’s CEH or the more advanced ECSA.
Advertisement Your staff will get the skills they need to conduct ethical hacking activities on your own businesses, finding and fixing security flaws that only a hacker could find.
Secure your business now
Complex threats -- like rapid IoT expansion -- are set to dominate 2020. To defend your organisation in 2020, you’ll need to think like a hacker.
submitted by tonyrogerz to Tech_And_Hacking_News [link] [comments]

Bob The Magic Custodian



Summary: Everyone knows that when you give your assets to someone else, they always keep them safe. If this is true for individuals, it is certainly true for businesses.
Custodians always tell the truth and manage funds properly. They won't have any interest in taking the assets as an exchange operator would. Auditors tell the truth and can't be misled. That's because organizations that are regulated are incapable of lying and don't make mistakes.

First, some background. Here is a summary of how custodians make us more secure:

Previously, we might give Alice our crypto assets to hold. There were risks:

But "no worries", Alice has a custodian named Bob. Bob is dressed in a nice suit. He knows some politicians. And he drives a Porsche. "So you have nothing to worry about!". And look at all the benefits we get:
See - all problems are solved! All we have to worry about now is:
It's pretty simple. Before we had to trust Alice. Now we only have to trust Alice, Bob, and all the ways in which they communicate. Just think of how much more secure we are!

"On top of that", Bob assures us, "we're using a special wallet structure". Bob shows Alice a diagram. "We've broken the balance up and store it in lots of smaller wallets. That way", he assures her, "a thief can't take it all at once". And he points to a historic case where a large sum was taken "because it was stored in a single wallet... how stupid".
"Very early on, we used to have all the crypto in one wallet", he said, "and then one Christmas a hacker came and took it all. We call him the Grinch. Now we individually wrap each crypto and stick it under a binary search tree. The Grinch has never been back since."

"As well", Bob continues, "even if someone were to get in, we've got insurance. It covers all thefts and even coercion, collusion, and misplaced keys - only subject to the policy terms and conditions." And with that, he pulls out a phone-book sized contract and slams it on the desk with a thud. "Yep", he continues, "we're paying top dollar for one of the best policies in the country!"
"Can I read it?' Alice asks. "Sure," Bob says, "just as soon as our legal team is done with it. They're almost through the first chapter." He pauses, then continues. "And can you believe that sales guy Mike? He has the same year Porsche as me. I mean, what are the odds?"

"Do you use multi-sig?", Alice asks. "Absolutely!" Bob replies. "All our engineers are fully trained in multi-sig. Whenever we want to set up a new wallet, we generate 2 separate keys in an air-gapped process and store them in this proprietary system here. Look, it even requires the biometric signature from one of our team members to initiate any withdrawal." He demonstrates by pressing his thumb into the display. "We use a third-party cloud validation API to match the thumbprint and authorize each withdrawal. The keys are also backed up daily to an off-site third-party."
"Wow that's really impressive," Alice says, "but what if we need access for a withdrawal outside of office hours?" "Well that's no issue", Bob says, "just send us an email, call, or text message and we always have someone on staff to help out. Just another part of our strong commitment to all our customers!"

"What about Proof of Reserve?", Alice asks. "Of course", Bob replies, "though rather than publish any blockchain addresses or signed transaction, for privacy we just do a SHA256 refactoring of the inverse hash modulus for each UTXO nonce and combine the smart contract coefficient consensus in our hyperledger lightning node. But it's really simple to use." He pushes a button and a large green checkmark appears on a screen. "See - the algorithm ran through and reserves are proven."
"Wow", Alice says, "you really know your stuff! And that is easy to use! What about fiat balances?" "Yeah, we have an auditor too", Bob replies, "Been using him for a long time so we have quite a strong relationship going! We have special books we give him every year and he's very efficient! Checks the fiat, crypto, and everything all at once!"

"We used to have a nice offline multi-sig setup we've been using without issue for the past 5 years, but I think we'll move all our funds over to your facility," Alice says. "Awesome", Bob replies, "Thanks so much! This is perfect timing too - my Porsche got a dent on it this morning. We have the paperwork right over here." "Great!", Alice replies.
And with that, Alice gets out her pen and Bob gets the contract. "Don't worry", he says, "you can take your crypto-assets back anytime you like - just subject to our cancellation policy. Our annual management fees are also super low and we don't adjust them often".

How many holes have to exist for your funds to get stolen?
Just one.

Why are we taking a powerful offline multi-sig setup, widely used globally in hundreds of different/lacking regulatory environments with 0 breaches to date, and circumventing it by a demonstrably weak third party layer? And paying a great expense to do so?
If you go through the list of breaches in the past 2 years to highly credible organizations, you go through the list of major corporate frauds (only the ones we know about), you go through the list of all the times platforms have lost funds, you go through the list of times and ways that people have lost their crypto from identity theft, hot wallet exploits, extortion, etc... and then you go through this custodian with a fine-tooth comb and truly believe they have value to add far beyond what you could, sticking your funds in a wallet (or set of wallets) they control exclusively is the absolute worst possible way to take advantage of that security.

The best way to add security for crypto-assets is to make a stronger multi-sig. With one custodian, what you are doing is giving them your cryptocurrency and hoping they're honest, competent, and flawlessly secure. It's no different than storing it on a really secure exchange. Maybe the insurance will cover you. Didn't work for Bitpay in 2015. Didn't work for Yapizon in 2017. Insurance has never paid a claim in the entire history of cryptocurrency. But maybe you'll get lucky. Maybe your exact scenario will buck the trend and be what they're willing to cover. After the large deductible and hopefully without a long and expensive court battle.

And you want to advertise this increase in risk, the lapse of judgement, an accident waiting to happen, as though it's some kind of benefit to customers ("Free institutional-grade storage for your digital assets.")? And then some people are writing to the OSC that custodians should be mandatory for all funds on every exchange platform? That this somehow will make Canadians as a whole more secure or better protected compared with standard air-gapped multi-sig? On what planet?

Most of the problems in Canada stemmed from one thing - a lack of transparency. If Canadians had known what a joke Quadriga was - it wouldn't have grown to lose $400m from hard-working Canadians from coast to coast to coast. And Gerald Cotten would be in jail, not wherever he is now (at best, rotting peacefully). EZ-BTC and mister Dave Smilie would have been a tiny little scam to his friends, not a multi-million dollar fraud. Einstein would have got their act together or been shut down BEFORE losing millions and millions more in people's funds generously donated to criminals. MapleChange wouldn't have even been a thing. And maybe we'd know a little more about CoinTradeNewNote - like how much was lost in there. Almost all of the major losses with cryptocurrency exchanges involve deception with unbacked funds.
So it's great to see transparency reports from BitBuy and ShakePay where someone independently verified the backing. The only thing we don't have is:
It's not complicated to validate cryptocurrency assets. They need to exist, they need to be spendable, and they need to cover the total balances. There are plenty of credible people and firms across the country that have the capacity to reasonably perform this validation. Having more frequent checks by different, independent, parties who publish transparent reports is far more valuable than an annual check by a single "more credible/official" party who does the exact same basic checks and may or may not publish anything. Here's an example set of requirements that could be mandated:
There are ways to structure audits such that neither crypto assets nor customer information are ever put at risk, and both can still be properly validated and publicly verifiable. There are also ways to structure audits such that they are completely reasonable for small platforms and don't inhibit innovation in any way. By making the process as reasonable as possible, we can completely eliminate any reason/excuse that an honest platform would have for not being audited. That is arguable far more important than any incremental improvement we might get from mandating "the best of the best" accountants. Right now we have nothing mandated and tons of Canadians using offshore exchanges with no oversight whatsoever.

Transparency does not prove crypto assets are safe. CoinTradeNewNote, Flexcoin ($600k), and Canadian Bitcoins ($100k) are examples where crypto-assets were breached from platforms in Canada. All of them were online wallets and used no multi-sig as far as any records show. This is consistent with what we see globally - air-gapped multi-sig wallets have an impeccable record, while other schemes tend to suffer breach after breach. We don't actually know how much CoinTrader lost because there was no visibility. Rather than publishing details of what happened, the co-founder of CoinTrader silently moved on to found another platform - the "most trusted way to buy and sell crypto" - a site that has no information whatsoever (that I could find) on the storage practices and a FAQ advising that “[t]rading cryptocurrency is completely safe” and that having your own wallet is “entirely up to you! You can certainly keep cryptocurrency, or fiat, or both, on the app.” Doesn't sound like much was learned here, which is really sad to see.
It's not that complicated or unreasonable to set up a proper hardware wallet. Multi-sig can be learned in a single course. Something the equivalent complexity of a driver's license test could prevent all the cold storage exploits we've seen to date - even globally. Platform operators have a key advantage in detecting and preventing fraud - they know their customers far better than any custodian ever would. The best job that custodians can do is to find high integrity individuals and train them to form even better wallet signatories. Rather than mandating that all platforms expose themselves to arbitrary third party risks, regulations should center around ensuring that all signatories are background-checked, properly trained, and using proper procedures. We also need to make sure that signatories are empowered with rights and responsibilities to reject and report fraud. They need to know that they can safely challenge and delay a transaction - even if it turns out they made a mistake. We need to have an environment where mistakes are brought to the surface and dealt with. Not one where firms and people feel the need to hide what happened. In addition to a knowledge-based test, an auditor can privately interview each signatory to make sure they're not in coercive situations, and we should make sure they can freely and anonymously report any issues without threat of retaliation.
A proper multi-sig has each signature held by a separate person and is governed by policies and mutual decisions instead of a hierarchy. It includes at least one redundant signature. For best results, 3of4, 3of5, 3of6, 4of5, 4of6, 4of7, 5of6, or 5of7.

History has demonstrated over and over again the risk of hot wallets even to highly credible organizations. Nonetheless, many platforms have hot wallets for convenience. While such losses are generally compensated by platforms without issue (for example Poloniex, Bitstamp, Bitfinex, Gatecoin, Coincheck, Bithumb, Zaif, CoinBene, Binance, Bitrue, Bitpoint, Upbit, VinDAX, and now KuCoin), the public tends to focus more on cases that didn't end well. Regardless of what systems are employed, there is always some level of risk. For that reason, most members of the public would prefer to see third party insurance.
Rather than trying to convince third party profit-seekers to provide comprehensive insurance and then relying on an expensive and slow legal system to enforce against whatever legal loopholes they manage to find each and every time something goes wrong, insurance could be run through multiple exchange operators and regulators, with the shared interest of having a reputable industry, keeping costs down, and taking care of Canadians. For example, a 4 of 7 multi-sig insurance fund held between 5 independent exchange operators and 2 regulatory bodies. All Canadian exchanges could pay premiums at a set rate based on their needed coverage, with a higher price paid for hot wallet coverage (anything not an air-gapped multi-sig cold wallet). Such a model would be much cheaper to manage, offer better coverage, and be much more reliable to payout when needed. The kind of coverage you could have under this model is unheard of. You could even create something like the CDIC to protect Canadians who get their trading accounts hacked if they can sufficiently prove the loss is legitimate. In cases of fraud, gross negligence, or insolvency, the fund can be used to pay affected users directly (utilizing the last transparent balance report in the worst case), something which private insurance would never touch. While it's recommended to have official policies for coverage, a model where members vote would fully cover edge cases. (Could be similar to the Supreme Court where justices vote based on case law.)
Such a model could fully protect all Canadians across all platforms. You can have a fiat coverage governed by legal agreements, and crypto-asset coverage governed by both multi-sig and legal agreements. It could be practical, affordable, and inclusive.

Now, we are at a crossroads. We can happily give up our freedom, our innovation, and our money. We can pay hefty expenses to auditors, lawyers, and regulators year after year (and make no mistake - this cost will grow to many millions or even billions as the industry grows - and it will be borne by all Canadians on every platform because platforms are not going to eat up these costs at a loss). We can make it nearly impossible for any new platform to enter the marketplace, forcing Canadians to use the same stagnant platforms year after year. We can centralize and consolidate the entire industry into 2 or 3 big players and have everyone else fail (possibly to heavy losses of users of those platforms). And when a flawed security model doesn't work and gets breached, we can make it even more complicated with even more people in suits making big money doing the job that blockchain was supposed to do in the first place. We can build a system which is so intertwined and dependent on big government, traditional finance, and central bankers that it's future depends entirely on that of the fiat system, of fractional banking, and of government bail-outs. If we choose this path, as history has shown us over and over again, we can not go back, save for revolution. Our children and grandchildren will still be paying the consequences of what we decided today.
Or, we can find solutions that work. We can maintain an open and innovative environment while making the adjustments we need to make to fully protect Canadian investors and cryptocurrency users, giving easy and affordable access to cryptocurrency for all Canadians on the platform of their choice, and creating an environment in which entrepreneurs and problem solvers can bring those solutions forward easily. None of the above precludes innovation in any way, or adds any unreasonable cost - and these three policies would demonstrably eliminate or resolve all 109 historic cases as studied here - that's every single case researched so far going back to 2011. It includes every loss that was studied so far not just in Canada but globally as well.
Unfortunately, finding answers is the least challenging part. Far more challenging is to get platform operators and regulators to agree on anything. My last post got no response whatsoever, and while the OSC has told me they're happy for industry feedback, I believe my opinion alone is fairly meaningless. This takes the whole community working together to solve. So please let me know your thoughts. Please take the time to upvote and share this with people. Please - let's get this solved and not leave it up to other people to do.

Facts/background/sources (skip if you like):



Thoughts?
submitted by azoundria2 to QuadrigaInitiative [link] [comments]

How YFI came out of nowhere to become the fastest coin to reach $1B and the fastest coin to ever get listed on Coinbase

Note: As mentioned to the original 624 Reddit subscribers, there will be $YFI based Exclusive Original Content released here by myself and others from time to time. These kinds of interactive Deep Dives with a Q&A with fellow Investors / Beta Testers right afterwards is a rare thing in Crypto, and will only be found with this level of immediacy, social interaction, permanence, depth, and complexity of analysis and feedback on a platform like Reddit.

A lot of projects have low innovation, just copying something that someone else has already done, but with small tweaks to things like variables in Smart Contracts. A few rare projects have genuine innovation, providing genuine value to investors and users by providing attractive new products that simplify a lot of things in this space.
Even rarer are the Unicorns that not only have innovation, but they have innovation in spades, oozing out of every pore. $YFI is one of these types of Unicorns. The scope of products and rapidity of release of new revolutionary products of this project has been simply unmatched in the short history of Crypto.
Since 2009, the world of crypto has never seen anything like this lightning fast pace of development spanning such a wide scope of products - optimized automated yield farming and lending that relentlessly hunts the best yields, crypto insurance on Smart Contracts, a revolutionary Stablecoin idea that essentially makes a USD altcoin "smart" with built-in yield farming capabilities for the first time, to name a few - all built by a genius Smart Contract Builder who provided the world the first Fair Launch token.
Key to wrapping your head around the advantages that the yEarn Finance ecosystem has over - well, every single other option out there at this time - are the concepts below:

  1. CeFi vs. DeFi
  2. Composability
  3. Smart Contract Stacking
  4. The power of a Talented and Diverse DAO

To discuss these concepts, and to educate beginners, we have to understand what the terms above truly mean. This post doesn't discuss any particular products and their advantages, only the systemic advantages that are available only to $YFI. This project seems to attract the smartest and the highest risk taking of crypto investors, and an important thing in truly understanding all of the risks involved, is that you have to know the terms and concepts first. Even veteran crypto and DeFi users may be thrown for a loop by some of the innovative products and concepts that keep coming out of the YFI Labs.
This project is going through an expansion phase, where the scope of everything and the reach of the various released products is increasing (Insurance, A truly pegged Stablecoin, yETH Version 2, ySwap, yLiquidate, etc, etc..)
You know that there's some motherforker or twenty that is now just avidly waiting for every piece of code that Andre drops onto GitHub, so that they can be among the first to copy it verbatim then claim it as "their own variation" because they changed some variables and titles. Yawn.
From the definitive glossary for the DeFi space - yet another $YFI innovation - I'll list their definitions below. These may not be their final definitions when I finish any V1.1 edits to it, but they're good enough for now, and at least 3 or more YFI Dev Team members have read, reviewed, or edited these definitions. I've also invited my fellow Beta testers to provide comments to my RFC on this subreddit and in the Governance forum (among the documentation volunteers).
Yes, this is how early DeFi investors are in the development and maturation of the DeFi space. Anyone reading this right now is so early into DeFi's evolution that the terms used for this space are literally still being finalized by the community.
I've given a little bit of a sneak peek into how technical documentation is somehow self-organized in a powerful DAO such as this one. In this example, it starts off with a call for help on Twitter to improve our documentation by tracheopteryx. Interested and qualified volunteers show up (or don't) when such a call is made.
Your writers and editors have spent many a moment pondering off into space debating whether this term really means this or that, or if the term was either succinctly described, or fully sufficient. It's a usually thankless and anonymous job, that is critical in providing enough relevant information to its users and investors. [Note: Just like anything you see related to the $YFI project: You can help us improve this documentation - any of it - if you see errors or better ways of describing this information.]
All terms are shamelessly plagiarized from myself and my fellow writeeditors - u/tracheopteryx and Franklin - from the draft definitions in our new DeFi glossary: https://docs.yearn.finance/defi-glossary

1. CeFi vs. DeFi
CeFi - Centralized Finance. In terms of cryptocurrency, CeFi is represented by centralized cryptocurrency exchanges, businesses or organizations with a physical address, and usually with some sort of corporate structure. These CeFi businesses must follow all applicable laws, rules, and regulations in each country, state, or region in which they operate.
DeFi - DeFi, or Decentralized Finance, is at its root a set of Smart Contracts running independently on blockchains such as the Ethereum network. Smart Contracts may or may not interact with other smart contracts and even other blockchains.
The goal of DeFi is to enhance profitability of investors in DeFi through automated smart contracts seeking to maximize yields for invested funds. DeFi is marked by rapid innovative progression and testing of new ideas and concepts.
DeFi often involves high risk investing sometimes involving smart contracts that have not been audited or even thoroughly reviewed (a review is not as comprehensive as an audit, but may be also be included as part of an audit). Due to this and other reasons, DeFi is conventionally considered to be more risky than CeFi or traditional investing.
Comment: DeFi is higher risk, partly because it moves so fast. A lot of yams, hot dogs, and sushi can get lost when you move so fast that you can't even bother to do a thorough audit before releasing code. The cream of the crop projects will all have had multiple audits done by multiple independent auditors. Auditors are expensive. At such an embryonic stage, most projects can't afford to have one audit done let alone 5.
But if you can live with that higher risk intrinsic in DeFi and be willing to be a part of "testing in prod," then financial innovation can truly blossom. And if you let your best and brightest members of your community focus only on doing what they do best, then they don't have to bother to try to grow a business like a Bezos, Musk, or a Zuckerberg. Innovative entrepreneurs in this mold such as Andre, don't have to even try to do this business growth on their own because the DAO sets it up so that they don't have to do this. The DAO both grows the business while supporting and allowing these innovators to simply innovate, instead of trying to get nerds to do backroom deals to gain market share and access to new customers. It turns out that nerds are much more productive when you just let them be a nerd in their labs.

  1. Composability
Composability - The measure of the usability and ability of a product to be used as a building block (or "money lego") in the construction of other products or domains. A protocol that is simple, powerful, and that functions well with other protocols would be considered to have high composability.
Comment: The maturity of the cryptocurrency ecosystem and the evolution of composable building tools in the DeFi space now make new products and concepts available. $YFI would not have been possible only 2 or 3 years ago; the tools and ecosystem simply weren't ready for it yet.
This is why only now are you and many other now hearing about YFI. In 2018, Andre began providing free code reviews to Crypto Briefing. Andre had to learn to walk before he could run, and the composable tools needed to work on embryonic ideas in his head were simply not ready or available then. By reading and reviewing so many Smart Contracts he learned to recognize good code from bad code at what was still a very early stage in Smart Contract development in 2018, only 3 years after ETH's launch in July 2015.

  1. Smart Contract Stacking
Smart Contracts - A digital contract that is programmed in a language that is considered Turing complete, meaning that with enough processing power and time, a properly programmed Smart Contract should be able to use its code base and logical algorithms to perform almost any digital task or process. Ethereum's programming languages, such as Solidity and Vyper, are Turing complete.
Comment: Smart Contracts have actually gotten smarter since ETH launched in July 2015. It's because Smart Contract builders needed to learn Solidity and how it functions and interoperates before they could spread their wings as designers. With more time and experience under their belts, the early SC builders that stuck to it have gotten much better.
In Andre Cronje, we may have been witness to the rise of the next Satoshi or Vitalik of crypto. There is a reason that a couple of days ago, I counted 6 of 41 YF clones - nearly 15% - among the top gainers on the day. Success breeds copycats showing a ton of flattery. A smart contract is so smart, it can be used to be stacked upon other smart contracts such as at Aave or Maker.
True innovation takes time, sacrifice, blood, sweat, and tears. It does not come without cost to those doing the innovating.
There is not a single project in DeFi, CeFi, or even all of cryptocurrency that can claim the breadth and diversity of innovation and product reach that is found in the $YFI ecosystem. As a tech investor and professional nerd who's been involved at Research Labs and around product development and testing since before the year 2000. Prior to that I've ready widely and keenly to keep up with technological changes and assess investment potential in these disruptive changes nearly my whole life.
The amount of innovation shown in this project is breathtaking if you're a Tech or FinTech researcher. It's being released at a ridiculously rapid pace that is simply unmatched in any private or government research lab anywhere, let alone at any CeFi or traditional financial institution one can name. The only comparable levels of innovation shown by this young project is typically only seen during periods of epochal changes such as The Renaissance or times of strife and war, such as World War II.
Unless you've been in the industry and working with coders: I don't think those that haven't been around software development and testing can understand, can truly grasp that no one, no group does this. This isn't normal. This rapid-fire release of truly innovative code and intelligent strategies would have to be comparable to some of the greatest creative periods of human ingenuity and creativity. It's truly on par with periods of brilliance seen by thinkers like Newton, Einstein and Tesla, except with software code and concepts in decentralized finance. When the history of FinTech writes this chapter in its history, $YFI may need its own section or chapter.
Don't forget all of these financial instruments we take for granted all around us, all had a simple start somewhere, whether it was an IOU system of credit, insurance, stocks, bonds, derivatives, futures, options, and so on...they all started off as an idea somewhere that had to get tested sooner or later "in production."
One brilliant aspect of $YFI Smart Contracts is that they're built as a profitable layer atop existing DeFi protocols, extracting further value from base crypto assets and even primary crypto derivatives. $YFI is built atop existing smart contracts to create further value where there was none before, and help maximize gains for long term investors.

  1. The Power of a Talented and Diverse DAO
DAO - Distributed Autonomous Organization. The first DAO was started in 2016. According to Wikipedia's definition, it is an: "organization represented by rules encoded as a computer program that is transparent, controlled by the organization members and not influenced by a central government. A DAO's financial transaction record and program rules are maintained on a blockchain."
When implemented well, a DAO allows for real world experiments in decentralized democratic organization and control, with more freedom of action and less regulatory oversight for DAO controlled projects and products when compared to legacy corporate structures and organizations.
Comment: yEarn Finance has shown us what a properly motivated and sufficiently powerful DAO can do in a short amount of time.
There's many reasons why this project with an already profitable business model is the fastest original project in history to ever reach a $1B marketcap in any market - traditional or crypto - accomplishing this amazing feat in less than two months. There's reasons why this is probably the fastest coin in history to get listed on Coinbase in less than 2 months.
The power of a sufficiently talented and diverse development team and community is stunning in its power, speed, and ability to get things done quickly. There are risks aplenty with parts of this project, but $YFI is now seen as a "safe" place in DeFi, because you know you that as far as yield farming you probably couldn't do it better yourself unless you took a chance on unaudited code with anonymous Devs, or you were doing the trading equivalent of throwing darts blindfolded and somehow won, except that you even more improbably kept doing that over and over and winning.

Summary: There's reasons why YFI has been called the Bitcoin of DeFi and the Berkshire Hathaway Series A of crypto. I've listed some of the reasons above. The confluence of these 4 factors has helped lead to explosive growth for this project.
This isn't financial advice as I'm not a financial pro but make no mistake: as a Crypto OG around crypto since early 2013, who was deeply involved in multiple community projects as an early organizer, and who was a small investor during the DotCom era investing in early giants that went on to be gorillas, I don't say this lightly that the $YFI project is lightning in a bottle and a diamond in the rough.
What $YFI allows, when all is said and done, is the rapid fire implementation of great ideas that have gone through a rapid Darwinian evolution, where only the best ideas are implemented. Thoughts and ideas are powerful things. The valuation of this coin and ecosystem has to, it must take into account that this nascent financial innovation hub and ecosystem actually works and allows the best of these ideas to actually blossom rapidly.
You just don't find too many gems like this.
submitted by CryptoOGkauai to yearn_finance [link] [comments]

CoreX: Bringing Decentralized Governance to the Table

CoreX: Bringing Decentralized Governance to the Table
Governance Tokens are being created at rapid pace and being tabbed as a game-changer in the cryptocurrency industry. Allowing a fully decentralized platform with direct control by the community has been the most trustworthy build since Bitcoins inception. Decentralization seems to be the most trustworthy and sustainable option for cryptocurrency projects and offers a sense of transparency and control that everyday enthusiasts just aren't used too. Adding in the fact that a governance is now playing a huge role in factoring into the development of big name projects and en-devours, a perfect storm is brewing. CoreX looks to take this decentralized governance model and apply it in way that has yet to be seen to become that perfect storm.

https://preview.redd.it/xm34uw08trt51.jpg?width=513&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=9e9c2fe17035cd0db8fb76ad293508682beb1f66
CoreX (CXF) is an ERC20 Token which plans to utilize decentralized governance from the beginning of the projects existence by allowing participants to dictate the tokens supply in what is being called a “Supply Determination Event" which will last for a period of 3 days and is currently running as I write this article. In order to contribute to the SDE, you connect your Metamask wallet with the projects site and use the menu to deposit up to 10 ETH after approving through Metamask. What makes this project different from other staking token farms is that it is 100% decentralized and the community is making a key decision in the tokens overall life cycle. Most contracts/crypto projects have a predetermined amount of minted tokens/coins or are infinitely available.

The initial contract will mint 1000 CXF. These tokens will be used to provide liquidity on Uniswap. Contribute ETH into the SDE to get ‘CXF/ETH LP’ tokens while also minting the only supply of CXF tokens according to the floor price. Initially, there will be 1,000 CXF minted but this number will be "Post-Determined" by the "Supply Determination Event" No tokens will be set aside for the developers or members of the team working on the project. The project is being fully developed from scratch and it is not a fork or copy of any known existing project. The contracts will also be undergoing an independent audit by a third party auditor, who can be found on Twitter under the tag @ NCyotee (all 5 contracts in the ecosystem are listed at the end of this article.

https://preview.redd.it/zb0z0zehurt51.jpg?width=500&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=a1cf2a00d1a0dc6d4477ead66def517de13cdcad
At the end of this event, the minting function will be revoked and from here on in the supply will be fixed to the total amount, set against the floor Price. A diagram outlining the SDE and the subsequent Liquidity Generating Event which I will talk more about later is shown below.

https://preview.redd.it/o83tpkw8trt51.jpg?width=1079&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=ec5d695b2c953ea320f7409d6d237ba4ef89f871

After the SDE is completed, another event called a "Liquidity Generating Event" is next. This event will also last 3 days. Uniquely, 50% of whatever CXF you mint in the SDE will be given back to you along with Liquidity Pool Tokens. The remaining 50% of CXF will be dispersed to as a reward to yield farmers who stake their CXF/ETH LP Tokens. With supply determined and a floor price established, in theory, price will eventually increase as more ETH is deposited into the contract. This means that potentially whatever CXF you minted are worth more than the initial floor price may in turn keep increasing in value. It is also important to consider that all rewards from the LGE are in LP tokens, not original CXF.

The token is still early in development even though we are already heading into day 2 of the SDE. I wanted to break down the above image which shows an outline of how funds will travel through the ecosystem. After the SDE and LGE is complete and tokens are being staked and farmers are being rewarded, everything will come full surface. Farmers will be given the entirety of the 1% transaction fee for the first week that farming begins. After the first week, 93% of the 1% transaction fee rewards are given to the farmers of the staking pool, with 7% of that 1% fee being sent to the developers. It has not been determined if the developers are going to recycle these fees back into the contract or use them for development. That will remain to be seen. Other than these small details, the contract and its tokenomics are quite simple and make for a unique environment which will compete heavily to stay above floor price and keep moving in the right direction.

It's important to keep in mind how integral decentralization is to the project and what that means for its future development and opportunities. With this open world type decentralized governance model, anything is possible and anything can be built upon it as the community sees fit. Areas for improvement, innovation, and more are always possible and will help keep CoreX competitive against the next yield farm down the line. This allows a grand opportunity to adapt and change with the ever-growing cryptocurrency space.

With hundreds of projects being created every day, it's difficult to see which are the rug pulls and which are the legitimate projects trying to innovate the space. CoreX falls under the latter and I am extremely excited to see the completion of the SDE and LGE so we can see how well this ecosystem flourished. Stay tuned!


Pertinent Links:
- Website: https://www.Corex.finance
- Github: https://Github.com/Corexfinance
- Telegram: https://t.me/CoreXFinance
- SDE Youtube video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5Bli4FePQR0
- Twitter: https://twitter.com/corexfinance
- Uniswap pair: https://etherscan.io/address/0x870ec30ca487c0c228c94bfc06125812722b2ed9
- CoreXVault: https://etherscan.io/address/0xbbad54e4c6a322f785e0f8a3e05912ba028cad4c
- FeeApprover: https://etherscan.io/address/0x48a4a3192ad705da0d5d229d963f4c0fd4cd4583
- CXF Token: https://etherscan.io/address/0xaA0C90888Ce7433fB8D61188B7160D501A377527
- SDE Contract: https://etherscan.io/address/0x5584443288371BEF8b4B4405B2a31A75C378c1e4

(I write articles and reviews for legitimate, interesting, up and coming cryptocurrency projects. Feel free to PM me to review your project. Thank you!)


Disclaimer: This is not financial advice. The sole purpose of this post/article is to provide and create an informative and educated discussion regarding the project in question. Invest at your own risk.

https://preview.redd.it/ywm20r54zrt51.jpg?width=720&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=1cb1269a991940763c1bf6d3d2cee09b7fdc51ff
submitted by Chrisc9234 to CryptoCurrencies [link] [comments]

CoreX: Bringing Decentralized Governance to the Table

Governance Tokens are being created at rapid pace and being tabbed as a game-changer in the cryptocurrency industry. Allowing a fully decentralized platform with direct control by the community has been the most trustworthy build since Bitcoins inception. Decentralization seems to be the most trustworthy and sustainable option for cryptocurrency projects and offers a sense of transparency and control that everyday enthusiasts just aren't used too. Adding in the fact that a governance is now playing a huge role in factoring into the development of big name projects and en-devours, a perfect storm is brewing. CoreX looks to take this decentralized governance model and apply it in way that has yet to be seen to become that perfect storm.

CoreX (CXF) is an ERC20 Token which plans to utilize decentralized governance from the beginning of the projects existence by allowing participants to dictate the tokens supply in what is being called a “Supply Determination Event" which will last for a period of 3 days and is currently running as I write this article. In order to contribute to the SDE, you connect your Metamask wallet with the projects site and use the menu to deposit up to 10 ETH after approving through Metamask. What makes this project different from other staking token farms is that it is 100% decentralized and the community is making a key decision in the tokens overall life cycle. Most contracts/crypto projects have a predetermined amount of minted tokens/coins or are infinitely available.

The initial contract will mint 1000 CXF. These tokens will be used to provide liquidity on Uniswap. Contribute ETH into the SDE to get ‘CXF/ETH LP’ tokens while also minting the only supply of CXF tokens according to the floor price. Initially, there will be 1,000 CXF minted but this number will be "Post-Determined" by the "Supply Determination Event" No tokens will be set aside for the developers or members of the team working on the project. The project is being fully developed from scratch and it is not a fork or copy of any known existing project. The contracts will also be undergoing an independent audit by a third party auditor, who can be found on Twitter under the tag @ NCyotee (all 5 contracts in the ecosystem are listed at the end of this article). At the end of this event, the minting function will be revoked and from here on in the supply will be fixed to the total amount, set against the floor Price.

After the SDE is completed, another event called a "Liquidity Generating Event" is next. This event will also last 3 days. Uniquely, 50% of whatever CXF you mint in the SDE will be given back to you along with Liquidity Pool Tokens. The remaining 50% of CXF will be dispersed to as a reward to yield farmers who stake their CXF/ETH LP Tokens. With supply determined and a floor price established, in theory, price will eventually increase as more ETH is deposited into the contract. This means that potentially whatever CXF you minted are worth more than the initial floor price may in turn keep increasing in value. It is also important to consider that all rewards from the LGE are in LP tokens, not original CXF.

The token is still early in development even though we are already heading into day 2 of the SDE. I wanted to break down the above image which shows an outline of how funds will travel through the ecosystem. After the SDE and LGE is complete and tokens are being staked and farmers are being rewarded, everything will come full surface. Farmers will be given the entirety of the 1% transaction fee for the first week that farming begins. After the first week, 93% of the 1% transaction fee rewards are given to the farmers of the staking pool, with 7% of that 1% fee being sent to the developers. It has not been determined if the developers are going to recycle these fees back into the contract or use them for development. That will remain to be seen. Other than these small details, the contract and its tokenomics are quite simple and make for a unique environment which will compete heavily to stay above floor price and keep moving in the right direction.

It's important to keep in mind how integral decentralization is to the project and what that means for its future development and opportunities. With this open world type decentralized governance model, anything is possible and anything can be built upon it as the community sees fit. Areas for improvement, innovation, and more are always possible and will help keep CoreX competitive against the next yield farm down the line. This allows a grand opportunity to adapt and change with the ever-growing cryptocurrency space.

With hundreds of projects being created every day, it's difficult to see which are the rug pulls and which are the legitimate projects trying to innovate the space. CoreX falls under the latter and I am extremely excited to see the completion of the SDE and LGE so we can see how well this ecosystem flourished. Stay tuned!

Pertinent Links:
- Website: https://www.Corex.finance - Github: https://Github.com/Corexfinance - Telegram: https://t.me/CoreXFinance - SDE Youtube video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5Bli4FePQR0 - Twitter: https://twitter.com/corexfinance - Uniswap pair: https://etherscan.io/address/0x870ec30ca487c0c228c94bfc06125812722b2ed9 - CoreXVault: https://etherscan.io/address/0xbbad54e4c6a322f785e0f8a3e05912ba028cad4c - FeeApprover: https://etherscan.io/address/0x48a4a3192ad705da0d5d229d963f4c0fd4cd4583 - CXF Token: https://etherscan.io/address/0xaA0C90888Ce7433fB8D61188B7160D501A377527 - SDE Contract: https://etherscan.io/address/0x5584443288371BEF8b4B4405B2a31A75C378c1e4

(I write articles and reviews for legitimate, interesting, up and coming cryptocurrency projects. Feel free to PM me to review your project. Thank you!)

Disclaimer: This is not financial advice. The sole purpose of this post/article is to provide and create an informative and educated discussion regarding the project in question. Invest at your own risk.
submitted by Chrisc9234 to CryptoMoonShots [link] [comments]

CoreX: Bringing Decentralized Governance to the Table

CoreX: Bringing Decentralized Governance to the Table
Governance Tokens are being created at rapid pace and being tabbed as a game-changer in the cryptocurrency industry. Allowing a fully decentralized platform with direct control by the community has been the most trustworthy build since Bitcoins inception. Decentralization seems to be the most trustworthy and sustainable option for cryptocurrency projects and offers a sense of transparency and control that everyday enthusiasts just aren't used too. Adding in the fact that a governance is now playing a huge role in factoring into the development of big name projects and en-devours, a perfect storm is brewing. CoreX looks to take this decentralized governance model and apply it in way that has yet to be seen to become that perfect storm.
https://preview.redd.it/wjcb7xj9xvt51.jpg?width=513&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=fca30eac4bb20882e571aa0e0af62def4a7c12a1
CoreX (CXF) is an ERC20 Token which plans to utilize decentralized governance from the beginning of the projects existence by allowing participants to dictate the tokens supply in what is being called a “Supply Determination Event" which will last for a period of 3 days and is currently running as I write this article. In order to contribute to the SDE, you connect your Metamask wallet with the projects site and use the menu to deposit up to 10 ETH after approving through Metamask. What makes this project different from other staking token farms is that it is 100% decentralized and the community is making a key decision in the tokens overall life cycle. Most contracts/crypto projects have a predetermined amount of minted tokens/coins or are infinitely available.

https://preview.redd.it/oitqc5wcxvt51.jpg?width=1079&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=cfe582d4fa09b7562b6af0c9990bafd361c2af8f
The initial contract will mint 1000 CXF. These tokens will be used to provide liquidity on Uniswap. Contribute ETH into the SDE to get ‘CXF/ETH LP’ tokens while also minting the only supply of CXF tokens according to the floor price. Initially, there will be 1,000 CXF minted but this number will be "Post-Determined" by the "Supply Determination Event" No tokens will be set aside for the developers or members of the team working on the project. The project is being fully developed from scratch and it is not a fork or copy of any known existing project. The contracts will also be undergoing an independent audit by a third party auditor, who can be found on Twitter under the tag @ NCyotee (all 5 contracts in the ecosystem are listed at the end of this article). At the end of this event, the minting function will be revoked and from here on in the supply will be fixed to the total amount, set against the floor Price.

https://preview.redd.it/v622mtkdxvt51.jpg?width=500&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=5c0443059057d69d40ad0b166fafa46413daebc8
After the SDE is completed, another event called a "Liquidity Generating Event" is next. This event will also last 3 days. Uniquely, 50% of whatever CXF you mint in the SDE will be given back to you along with Liquidity Pool Tokens. The remaining 50% of CXF will be dispersed to as a reward to yield farmers who stake their CXF/ETH LP Tokens. With supply determined and a floor price established, in theory, price will eventually increase as more ETH is deposited into the contract. This means that potentially whatever CXF you minted are worth more than the initial floor price may in turn keep increasing in value. It is also important to consider that all rewards from the LGE are in LP tokens, not original CXF.

The token is still early in development even though we are already heading into day 2 of the SDE. I wanted to break down the above image which shows an outline of how funds will travel through the ecosystem. After the SDE and LGE is complete and tokens are being staked and farmers are being rewarded, everything will come full surface. Farmers will be given the entirety of the 1% transaction fee for the first week that farming begins. After the first week, 93% of the 1% transaction fee rewards are given to the farmers of the staking pool, with 7% of that 1% fee being sent to the developers. It has not been determined if the developers are going to recycle these fees back into the contract or use them for development. That will remain to be seen. Other than these small details, the contract and its tokenomics are quite simple and make for a unique environment which will compete heavily to stay above floor price and keep moving in the right direction.

It's important to keep in mind how integral decentralization is to the project and what that means for its future development and opportunities. With this open world type decentralized governance model, anything is possible and anything can be built upon it as the community sees fit. Areas for improvement, innovation, and more are always possible and will help keep CoreX competitive against the next yield farm down the line. This allows a grand opportunity to adapt and change with the ever-growing cryptocurrency space.

With hundreds of projects being created every day, it's difficult to see which are the rug pulls and which are the legitimate projects trying to innovate the space. CoreX falls under the latter and I am extremely excited to see the completion of the SDE and LGE so we can see how well this ecosystem flourished. Stay tuned!

Pertinent Links:
- Website: https://www.Corex.finance - Github: https://Github.com/Corexfinance - Telegram: https://t.me/CoreXFinance - SDE Youtube video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5Bli4FePQR0 - Twitter: https://twitter.com/corexfinance - Uniswap pair: https://etherscan.io/address/0x870ec30ca487c0c228c94bfc06125812722b2ed9 - CoreXVault: https://etherscan.io/address/0xbbad54e4c6a322f785e0f8a3e05912ba028cad4c - FeeApprover: https://etherscan.io/address/0x48a4a3192ad705da0d5d229d963f4c0fd4cd4583 - CXF Token: https://etherscan.io/address/0xaA0C90888Ce7433fB8D61188B7160D501A377527 - SDE Contract: https://etherscan.io/address/0x5584443288371BEF8b4B4405B2a31A75C378c1e4

(I write articles and reviews for legitimate, interesting, up and coming cryptocurrency projects. Feel free to PM me to review your project. Thank you!)

Disclaimer: This is not financial advice. The sole purpose of this post/article is to provide and create an informative and educated discussion regarding the project in question. Invest at your own risk.
https://preview.redd.it/jhucd8fexvt51.jpg?width=720&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=6f82432a1b7fa9207e860c36c851cb723cc49c12
submitted by Chrisc9234 to ethtrader [link] [comments]

CoreX: Bringing Decentralized Governance to the Table

CoreX: Bringing Decentralized Governance to the Table
Governance Tokens are being created at rapid pace and being tabbed as a game-changer in the cryptocurrency industry. Allowing a fully decentralized platform with direct control by the community has been the most trustworthy build since Bitcoins inception. Decentralization seems to be the most trustworthy and sustainable option for cryptocurrency projects and offers a sense of transparency and control that everyday enthusiasts just aren't used too. Adding in the fact that a governance is now playing a huge role in factoring into the development of big name projects and en-devours, a perfect storm is brewing. CoreX looks to take this decentralized governance model and apply it in way that has yet to be seen to become that perfect storm.
https://preview.redd.it/01gohnnwxvt51.jpg?width=513&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=9b530033bdac6e652301444cab74ef8af76fce95
CoreX (CXF) is an ERC20 Token which plans to utilize decentralized governance from the beginning of the projects existence by allowing participants to dictate the tokens supply in what is being called a “Supply Determination Event" which will last for a period of 3 days and is currently running as I write this article. In order to contribute to the SDE, you connect your Metamask wallet with the projects site and use the menu to deposit up to 10 ETH after approving through Metamask. What makes this project different from other staking token farms is that it is 100% decentralized and the community is making a key decision in the tokens overall life cycle. Most contracts/crypto projects have a predetermined amount of minted tokens/coins or are infinitely available.

https://preview.redd.it/8jxc2ehxxvt51.jpg?width=1079&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=0fac8e3369e17cbf879a697c73b3c92db485b07b

The initial contract will mint 1000 CXF. These tokens will be used to provide liquidity on Uniswap. Contribute ETH into the SDE to get ‘CXF/ETH LP’ tokens while also minting the only supply of CXF tokens according to the floor price. Initially, there will be 1,000 CXF minted but this number will be "Post-Determined" by the "Supply Determination Event" No tokens will be set aside for the developers or members of the team working on the project. The project is being fully developed from scratch and it is not a fork or copy of any known existing project. The contracts will also be undergoing an independent audit by a third party auditor, who can be found on Twitter under the tag @ NCyotee (all 5 contracts in the ecosystem are listed at the end of this article). At the end of this event, the minting function will be revoked and from here on in the supply will be fixed to the total amount, set against the floor Price.

https://preview.redd.it/p099tiuyxvt51.jpg?width=500&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=2c5bc7210648c3d59d516ae692837da6e409eedf

After the SDE is completed, another event called a "Liquidity Generating Event" is next. This event will also last 3 days. Uniquely, 50% of whatever CXF you mint in the SDE will be given back to you along with Liquidity Pool Tokens. The remaining 50% of CXF will be dispersed to as a reward to yield farmers who stake their CXF/ETH LP Tokens. With supply determined and a floor price established, in theory, price will eventually increase as more ETH is deposited into the contract. This means that potentially whatever CXF you minted are worth more than the initial floor price may in turn keep increasing in value. It is also important to consider that all rewards from the LGE are in LP tokens, not original CXF.

The token is still early in development even though we are already heading into day 2 of the SDE. I wanted to break down the above image which shows an outline of how funds will travel through the ecosystem. After the SDE and LGE is complete and tokens are being staked and farmers are being rewarded, everything will come full surface. Farmers will be given the entirety of the 1% transaction fee for the first week that farming begins. After the first week, 93% of the 1% transaction fee rewards are given to the farmers of the staking pool, with 7% of that 1% fee being sent to the developers. It has not been determined if the developers are going to recycle these fees back into the contract or use them for development. That will remain to be seen. Other than these small details, the contract and its tokenomics are quite simple and make for a unique environment which will compete heavily to stay above floor price and keep moving in the right direction.

It's important to keep in mind how integral decentralization is to the project and what that means for its future development and opportunities. With this open world type decentralized governance model, anything is possible and anything can be built upon it as the community sees fit. Areas for improvement, innovation, and more are always possible and will help keep CoreX competitive against the next yield farm down the line. This allows a grand opportunity to adapt and change with the ever-growing cryptocurrency space.

With hundreds of projects being created every day, it's difficult to see which are the rug pulls and which are the legitimate projects trying to innovate the space. CoreX falls under the latter and I am extremely excited to see the completion of the SDE and LGE so we can see how well this ecosystem flourished. Stay tuned!

Pertinent Links:
- Website: https://www.Corex.finance - Github: https://Github.com/Corexfinance - Telegram: https://t.me/CoreXFinance - SDE Youtube video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5Bli4FePQR0 - Twitter: https://twitter.com/corexfinance - Uniswap pair: https://etherscan.io/address/0x870ec30ca487c0c228c94bfc06125812722b2ed9 - CoreXVault: https://etherscan.io/address/0xbbad54e4c6a322f785e0f8a3e05912ba028cad4c - FeeApprover: https://etherscan.io/address/0x48a4a3192ad705da0d5d229d963f4c0fd4cd4583 - CXF Token: https://etherscan.io/address/0xaA0C90888Ce7433fB8D61188B7160D501A377527 - SDE Contract: https://etherscan.io/address/0x5584443288371BEF8b4B4405B2a31A75C378c1e4

(I write articles and reviews for legitimate, interesting, up and coming cryptocurrency projects. Feel free to PM me to review your project. Thank you!)

Disclaimer: This is not financial advice. The sole purpose of this post/article is to provide and create an informative and educated discussion regarding the project in question. Invest at your own risk.

https://preview.redd.it/3pqlznq0yvt51.jpg?width=720&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=b141c07813f6f266dd8ad1b162318881a2240429
submitted by Chrisc9234 to defi [link] [comments]

Century Pacific ups the Coco Wars ante against Axelum (Wednesday, August 20)

Happy Wednesday, Barkada --

The PSE closed up 88 points to 6157 ▲1.44%.

Thank you verneornitier for pat on the back, and to StefanJanobski for being a reader since before the lockdown. Remember those days? Back when it was possible to consider a packed restaurant or bar to be "great atmosphere"? That's how long they've been a reader! That seems like forever ago.
Thanks also to Bien for the nice email, and to Mark for his approval of my puns. My puns! Compliments like that are going to make my hair wet... you know, because my head will get tubig.

Daily meme | Join MB | Today's email

COVID Update

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10-12 17:46 - 'Blockchain Security Engineer / Auditor' (self.Bitcoin) by /u/MileHighRecruiterGuy removed from /r/Bitcoin within 7-17min

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ETHE & GBTC (Grayscale) Frequently Asked Questions

It is no doubt Grayscale’s booming popularity as a mainstream investment has caused a lot of community hullabaloo lately. As such, I felt it was worth making a FAQ regarding the topic. I’m looking to update this as needed and of course am open to suggestions / adding any questions.
The goal is simply to have a thread we can link to anyone with questions on Grayscale and its products. Instead of explaining the same thing 3 times a day, shoot those posters over to this thread. My hope is that these questions are answered in a fairly simple and easy to understand manner. I think as the sub grows it will be a nice reference point for newcomers.
Disclaimer: I do NOT work for Grayscale and as such am basing all these answers on information that can be found on their website / reports. (Grayscale’s official FAQ can be found here). I also do NOT have a finance degree, I do NOT have a Series 6 / 7 / 140-whatever, and I do NOT work with investment products for my day job. I have an accounting background and work within the finance world so I have the general ‘business’ knowledge to put it all together, but this is all info determined in my best faith effort as a layman. The point being is this --- it is possible I may explain something wrong or missed the technical terms, and if that occurs I am more than happy to update anything that can be proven incorrect
Everything below will be in reference to ETHE but will apply to GBTC as well. If those two segregate in any way, I will note that accordingly.
What is Grayscale? 
Grayscale is the company that created the ETHE product. Their website is https://grayscale.co/
What is ETHE? 
ETHE is essentially a stock that intends to loosely track the price of ETH. It does so by having each ETHE be backed by a specific amount of ETH that is held on chain. Initially, the newly minted ETHE can only be purchased by institutions and accredited investors directly from Grayscale. Once a year has passed (6 months for GBTC) it can then be listed on the OTCQX Best Market exchange for secondary trading. Once listed on OTCQX, anyone investor can purchase at this point. Additional information on ETHE can be found here.
So ETHE is an ETF? 
No. For technical reasons beyond my personal understandings it is not labeled an ETF. I know it all flows back to the “Securities Act Rule 144”, but due to my limited knowledge on SEC regulations I don’t want to misspeak past that. If anyone is more knowledgeable on the subject I am happy to input their answer here.
How long has ETHE existed? 
ETHE was formed 12/14/2017. GBTC was formed 9/25/2013.
How is ETHE created? 
The trust will issue shares to “Authorized Participants” in groups of 100 shares (called baskets). Authorized Participants are the only persons that may place orders to create these baskets and they do it on behalf of the investor.
Source: Creation and Redemption of Shares section on page 39 of the “Grayscale Ethereum Trust Annual Report (2019)” – Located Here
Note – The way their reports word this makes it sound like there is an army of authorizers doing the dirty work, but in reality there is only one Authorized Participant. At this moment the “Genesis” company is the sole Authorized Participant. Genesis is owned by the “Digital Currency Group, Inc.” which is the parent company of Grayscale as well. (And to really go down the rabbit hole it looks like DCG is the parent company of CoinDesk and is “backing 150+ companies across 30 countries, including Coinbase, Ripple, and Chainalysis.”)
Source: Digital Currency Group, Inc. informational section on page 77 of the “Grayscale Bitcoin Trust (BTC) Form 10-K (2019)” – Located Here
Source: Barry E. Silbert informational section on page 75 of the “Grayscale Bitcoin Trust (BTC) Form 10-K (2019)” – Located Here
How does Grayscale acquire the ETH to collateralize the ETHE product? 
An Investor may acquire ETHE by paying in cash or exchanging ETH already owned.
Source: Creation and Redemption of Shares section on page 40 of the “Grayscale Ethereum Trust Annual Report (2019)” – Located Here
Where does Grayscale store their ETH? Does it have a specific wallet address we can follow? 
ETH is stored with Coinbase Custody Trust Company, LLC. I am unaware of any specific address or set of addresses that can be used to verify the ETH is actually there.
As an aside - I would actually love to see if anyone knows more about this as it’s something that’s sort of peaked my interest after being asked about it… I find it doubtful we can find that however.
Source: Part C. Business Information, Item 8, subsection A. on page 16 of the “Grayscale Ethereum Trust Annual Report (2019)” – Located Here
Can ETHE be redeemed for ETH? 
No, currently there is no way to give your shares of ETHE back to Grayscale to receive ETH back. The only method of getting back into ETH would be to sell your ETHE to someone else and then use those proceeds to buy ETH yourself.
Source: Redemption Procedures on page 41 of the “Grayscale Ethereum Trust Annual Report (2019)” – Located Here
Why are they not redeeming shares? 
I think the report summarizes it best:
Redemptions of Shares are currently not permitted and the Trust is unable to redeem Shares. Subject to receipt of regulatory approval from the SEC and approval by the Sponsor in its sole discretion, the Trust may in the future operate a redemption program. Because the Trust does not believe that the SEC would, at this time, entertain an application for the waiver of rules needed in order to operate an ongoing redemption program, the Trust currently has no intention of seeking regulatory approval from the SEC to operate an ongoing redemption program.
Source: Redemption Procedures on page 41 of the “Grayscale Ethereum Trust Annual Report (2019)” – Located Here
What is the fee structure? 
ETHE has an annual fee of 2.5%. GBTC has an annual fee of 2.0%. Fees are paid by selling the underlying ETH / BTC collateralizing the asset.
Source: ETHE’s informational page on Grayscale’s website - Located Here
Source: Description of Trust on page 31 & 32 of the “Grayscale Ethereum Trust Annual Report (2019)” – Located Here
What is the ratio of ETH to ETHE? 
At the time of posting (6/19/2020) each ETHE share is backed by .09391605 ETH. Each share of GBTC is backed by .00096038 BTC.
ETHE & GBTC’s specific information page on Grayscale’s website updates the ratio daily – Located Here
For a full historical look at this ratio, it can be found on the Grayscale home page on the upper right side if you go to Tax Documents > 2019 Tax Documents > Grayscale Ethereum Trust 2019 Tax Letter.
Why is the ratio not 1:1? Why is it always decreasing? 
While I cannot say for certain why the initial distribution was not a 1:1 backing, it is more than likely to keep the price down and allow more investors a chance to purchase ETHE / GBTC.
As noted above, fees are paid by selling off the ETH collateralizing ETHE. So this number will always be trending downward as time goes on.
Source: Description of Trust on page 32 of the “Grayscale Ethereum Trust Annual Report (2019)” – Located Here
I keep hearing about how this is locked supply… explain? 
As noted above, there is currently no redemption program for converting your ETHE back into ETH. This means that once an ETHE is issued, it will remain in circulation until a redemption program is formed --- something that doesn’t seem to be too urgent for the SEC or Grayscale at the moment. Tiny amounts will naturally be removed due to fees, but the bulk of the asset is in there for good.
Knowing that ETHE cannot be taken back and destroyed at this time, the ETH collateralizing it will not be removed from the wallet for the foreseeable future. While it is not fully locked in the sense of say a totally lost key, it is not coming out any time soon.
Per their annual statement:
The Trust’s ETH will be transferred out of the ETH Account only in the following circumstances: (i) transferred to pay the Sponsor’s Fee or any Additional Trust Expenses, (ii) distributed in connection with the redemption of Baskets (subject to the Trust’s obtaining regulatory approval from the SEC to operate an ongoing redemption program and the consent of the Sponsor), (iii) sold on an as-needed basis to pay Additional Trust Expenses or (iv) sold on behalf of the Trust in the event the Trust terminates and liquidates its assets or as otherwise required by law or regulation.
Source: Description of Trust on page 31 of the “Grayscale Ethereum Trust Annual Report (2019)” – Located Here
Grayscale now owns a huge chunk of both ETH and BTC’s supply… should we be worried about manipulation, a sell off to crash the market crash, a staking cartel? 
First, it’s important to remember Grayscale is a lot more akin to an exchange then say an investment firm. Grayscale is working on behalf of its investors to create this product for investor control. Grayscale doesn’t ‘control’ the ETH it holds any more then Coinbase ‘controls’ the ETH in its hot wallet. (Note: There are likely some varying levels of control, but specific to this topic Grayscale cannot simply sell [legally, at least] the ETH by their own decision in the same manner Coinbase wouldn't be able to either.)
That said, there shouldn’t be any worry in the short to medium time-frame. As noted above, Grayscale can’t really remove ETH other than for fees or termination of the product. At 2.5% a year, fees are noise in terms of volume. Grayscale seems to be the fastest growing product in the crypto space at the moment and termination of the product seems unlikely.
IF redemptions were to happen tomorrow, it’s extremely unlikely we would see a mass exodus out of the product to redeem for ETH. And even if there was incentive to get back to ETH, the premium makes it so that it would be much more cost effective to just sell your ETHE on the secondary market and buy ETH yourself. Remember, any redemption is up to the investors and NOT something Grayscale has direct control over.
Yes, but what about [insert criminal act here]… 
Alright, yes. Technically nothing is stopping Grayscale from selling all the ETH / BTC and running off to the Bahamas (Hawaii?). BUT there is no real reason for them to do so. Barry is an extremely public figure and it won’t be easy for him to get away with that. Grayscale’s Bitcoin Trust creates SEC reports weekly / bi-weekly and I’m sure given the sentiment towards crypto is being watched carefully. Plus, Grayscale is making tons of consistent revenue and thus has little to no incentive to give that up for a quick buck.
That’s a lot of ‘happy little feels’ Bob, is there even an independent audit or is this Tether 2.0? 
Actually yes, an independent auditor report can be found in their annual reports. It is clearly aimed more towards the financial side and I doubt the auditors are crypto savants, but it is at least one extra set of eyes. Auditors are Friedman LLP – Auditor since 2015.
Source: Independent Auditor Report starting on page 116 (of the PDF itself) of the “Grayscale Ethereum Trust Annual Report (2019)” – Located Here
As mentioned by user TheCrpytosAndBloods (In Comments Below), a fun fact:
The company’s auditors Friedman LLP were also coincidentally TetheBitfinex’s auditors until They controversially parted ways in 2018 when the Tether controversy was at its height. I am not suggesting for one moment that there is anything shady about DCG - I just find it interesting it’s the same auditor.
“Grayscale sounds kind of lame” / “Not your keys not your crypto!” / “Why is anyone buying this, it sounds like a scam?” 
Welp, for starters this honestly is not really a product aimed at the people likely to be reading this post. To each their own, but do remember just because something provides no value to you doesn’t mean it can’t provide value to someone else. That said some of the advertised benefits are as follows:
So for example, I can set up an IRA at a brokerage account that has $0 trading fees. Then I can trade GBTC and ETHE all day without having to worry about tracking my taxes. All with the relative safety something like E-Trade provides over Binance.
As for how it benefits the everyday ETH holder? I think the supply lock is a positive. I also think this product exposes the Ethereum ecosystem to people who otherwise wouldn’t know about it.
Why is there a premium? Why is ETHE’s premium so insanely high compared to GBTC’s premium? 
There are a handful of theories of why a premium exists at all, some even mentioned in the annual report. The short list is as follows:
Why is ETHE’s so much higher the GBTC’s? Again, a few thoughts:

Are there any other differences between ETHE and GBTC? 
I touched on a few of the smaller differences, but one of the more interesting changes is GBTC is now a “SEC reporting company” as of January 2020. Which again goes beyond my scope of knowledge so I won’t comment on it too much… but the net result is GBTC is now putting out weekly / bi-weekly 8-K’s and annual 10-K’s. This means you can track GBTC that much easier at the moment as well as there is an extra layer of validity to the product IMO.
I’m looking for some statistics on ETHE… such as who is buying, how much is bought, etc? 
There is a great Q1 2020 report I recommend you give a read that has a lot of cool graphs and data on the product. It’s a little GBTC centric, but there is some ETHE data as well. It can be found here hidden within the 8-K filings.Q1 2020 is the 4/16/2020 8-K filing.
For those more into a GAAP style report see the 2019 annual 10-K of the same location.
Is Grayscale only just for BTC and ETH? 
No, there are other products as well. In terms of a secondary market product, ETCG is the Ethereum Classic version of ETHE. Fun Fact – ETCG was actually put out to the secondary market first. It also has a 3% fee tied to it where 1% of it goes to some type of ETC development fund.
In terms of institutional and accredited investors, there are a few ‘fan favorites’ such as Bitcoin Cash, Litcoin, Stellar, XRP, and Zcash. Something called Horizion (Backed by ZEN I guess? Idk to be honest what that is…). And a diversified Mutual Fund type fund that has a little bit of all of those. None of these products are available on the secondary market.
Are there alternatives to Grayscale? 
I know they exist, but I don’t follow them. I’ll leave this as a “to be edited” section and will add as others comment on what they know.
Per user Over-analyser (in comments below):
Coinshares (Formerly XBT provider) are the only similar product I know of. BTC, ETH, XRP and LTC as Exchange Traded Notes (ETN).
It looks like they are fully backed with the underlying crypto (no premium).
https://coinshares.com/etps/xbt-provideinvestor-resources/daily-hedging-position
Denominated in SEK and EUR. Certainly available in some UK pensions (SIPP).
As asked by pegcity - Okay so I was under the impression you can just give them your own ETH and get ETHE, but do you get 11 ETHE per ETH or do you get the market value of ETH in USD worth of ETHE? 
I have always understood that the ETHE issued directly through Grayscale is issued without the premium. As in, if I were to trade 1 ETH for ETHE I would get 11, not say only 2 or 3 because the secondary market premium is so high. And if I were paying cash only I would be paying the price to buy 1 ETH to get my 11 ETHE. Per page 39 of their annual statement, it reads as follows:
The Trust will issue Shares to Authorized Participants from time to time, but only in one or more Baskets (with a Basket being a block of 100 Shares). The Trust will not issue fractions of a Basket. The creation (and, should the Trust commence a redemption program, redemption) of Baskets will be made only in exchange for the delivery to the Trust, or the distribution by the Trust, of the number of whole and fractional ETH represented by each Basket being created (or, should the Trust commence a redemption program, redeemed), which is determined by dividing (x) the number of ETH owned by the Trust at 4:00 p.m., New York time, on the trade date of a creation or redemption order, after deducting the number of ETH representing the U.S. dollar value of accrued but unpaid fees and expenses of the Trust (converted using the ETH Index Price at such time, and carried to the eighth decimal place), by (y) the number of Shares outstanding at such time (with the quotient so obtained calculated to one one-hundred-millionth of one ETH (i.e., carried to the eighth decimal place)), and multiplying such quotient by 100 (the “Basket ETH Amount”). All questions as to the calculation of the Basket ETH Amount will be conclusively determined by the Sponsor and will be final and binding on all persons interested in the Trust. The Basket ETH Amount multiplied by the number of Baskets being created or redeemed is the “Total Basket ETH Amount.” The number of ETH represented by a Share will gradually decrease over time as the Trust’s ETH are used to pay the Trust’s expenses. Each Share represented approximately 0.0950 ETH and 0.0974 ETH as of December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively.

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LOEx Market Research Report on September 22: Fringe market falls sharply to drive BTC down

LOEx Market Research Report on September 22: Fringe market falls sharply to drive BTC down
[Today's Hot Tips]
1. [Brazilian Fund Management Company and Nasdaq will cooperate to launch Bitcoin ETF]
According to Cointelegraph on September 22, a regulated Brazilian fund management company, Hashdex, signed an agreement with Nasdaq to launch the world's first Bitcoin ETF on the Bermuda Stock Exchange. The ETF product has been approved by the Bermuda government and will be online trading before the end of the year.
2. [South Korean Internet giant, Kakao, may be interested in entering the DeFi field]
According to Cryptocurrency News on September 22, South Korean Internet giant, Kakao, seems to be interested in getting involved in the DeFi field recently. Li Yunhao, head of the ground X business of its blockchain subsidiary, recently stated that the Klaytn platform (a blockchain platform owned by Ground X, which owns the encrypted token KLAY) is open to expanding business related to DeFi. In addition, he also mentioned that Kakao plans to expand the scope of Klip wallet applications to allow support for copyright-related tokenized files, derivatives, and NFT tokens.
3. [OCC: Bank of America can hold reserves for stablecoin issuers]
According to The Block's news on September 21, according to OCC's new guidelines, the Federal Chartered Bank can hold reserves for stablecoins issuers. The Acting Auditor General, Brian Brooks, said in a statement: "This guidance provides banks in the Federal Banking System with greater regulatory certainty, enabling them to provide services to customers in a safe and reliable manner."
[Today's market analysis]
Bitcoin (BTC)BTC fluctuated upwards in the morning as a whole, rebounding slightly from around 10400 USDT to around 10450 USDT, and the overall fluctuation was not large. The mainstream currencies basically follow the trend of the broader market and have little volatility, and the overall trend is upward. BTC is currently trading at 10450.9 USDT on LOEx Global, an increase of 0.30% in 24h.
Global assets fell simultaneously. The European and American stock markets fell sharply yesterday. Spot gold began to fall at 14:00 in the afternoon, falling from 1955 to 1928, directly leading to a crash. BTC fell almost simultaneously, from 10900 to 10320.
BTC has followed the trend of gold obviously. On the other hand, ETH directly led the decline, with a maximum drop of more than 7%. We don't know how many chips are on the mountain again. The DeFi sector has encountered a big waterfall; the so-called not breaking or standing, personally feel that BTC will fall below 10,000 points this time, and you can gradually take positions below 10,000 points. For short-term analysis, as long as it does not stand firmly at 11,000, you should not be too optimistic about the market. After all, this wave is a "blood sucking" model and does not represent the overall strength of the market. In recent times, BTC has risen while other mainstream coins have not risen but fell. Yesterday, the decline of BTC is that mainstream coins have fallen even more, indicating that the "blood sucking" model has not yet ended.
However, there is no need to be too pessimistic. Last week, the hot spots in the end market have weakened. We need to see if there are new hot spots in the future. If not, the outflow of funds from the hot spots still needs a channel to receive.
Under normal circumstances, BTC and mainstream currencies in the currency circle are commonly used channels for capital inflows, so you can still stay focused. Look at the pressure of $ 11000 above BTC. A momentary breakthrough in this position does not mean anything. The key is to stand firm. We should look at $10,000 first at below.
Operation suggestions:
Support level: the first support level is 10000 points, the second support level is 9800 integers;
Resistance level: the first resistance level is 10500 points, the second resistance level is 11000 points.
LOEx is registered in Seychelles. It is a global one-stop digital asset service platform with business distribution nodes in 20 regions around the world. It has been exempted from Seychelles and Singapore Monetary Authority (MAS) digital currency trading services. Provide services and secure encrypted digital currency trading environment for 2 million community members in 24 hours.
https://preview.redd.it/ndl1g4526no51.png?width=619&format=png&auto=webp&s=84413e0d7f72332cacc177a6bd9575a1965b4662
submitted by LOEXCHANGE to loex [link] [comments]

All you need to know about Yield Farming - The rocket fuel for Defi

All you need to know about Yield Farming - The rocket fuel for Defi
Source
It’s effectively July 2017 in the world of decentralized finance (DeFi), and as in the heady days of the initial coin offering (ICO) boom, the numbers are only trending up.
According to DeFi Pulse, there is $1.9 billion in crypto assets locked in DeFi right now. According to the CoinDesk ICO Tracker, the ICO market started chugging past $1 billion in July 2017, just a few months before token sales started getting talked about on TV.
Debate juxtaposing these numbers if you like, but what no one can question is this: Crypto users are putting more and more value to work in DeFi applications, driven largely by the introduction of a whole new yield-generating pasture, Compound’s COMP governance token.
Governance tokens enable users to vote on the future of decentralized protocols, sure, but they also present fresh ways for DeFi founders to entice assets onto their platforms.
That said, it’s the crypto liquidity providers who are the stars of the present moment. They even have a meme-worthy name: yield farmers.

https://preview.redd.it/lxsvazp1g9l51.png?width=775&format=png&auto=webp&s=a36173ab679c701a5d5e0aac806c00fcc84d78c1

Where it started

Ethereum-based credit market Compound started distributing its governance token, COMP, to the protocol’s users this past June 15. Demand for the token (heightened by the way its automatic distribution was structured) kicked off the present craze and moved Compound into the leading position in DeFi.
The hot new term in crypto is “yield farming,” a shorthand for clever strategies where putting crypto temporarily at the disposal of some startup’s application earns its owner more cryptocurrency.
Another term floating about is “liquidity mining.”
The buzz around these concepts has evolved into a low rumble as more and more people get interested.
The casual crypto observer who only pops into the market when activity heats up might be starting to get faint vibes that something is happening right now. Take our word for it: Yield farming is the source of those vibes.
But if all these terms (“DeFi,” “liquidity mining,” “yield farming”) are so much Greek to you, fear not. We’re here to catch you up. We’ll get into all of them.
We’re going to go from very basic to more advanced, so feel free to skip ahead.

What are tokens?

Most CoinDesk readers probably know this, but just in case: Tokens are like the money video-game players earn while fighting monsters, money they can use to buy gear or weapons in the universe of their favorite game.
But with blockchains, tokens aren’t limited to only one massively multiplayer online money game. They can be earned in one and used in lots of others. They usually represent either ownership in something (like a piece of a Uniswap liquidity pool, which we will get into later) or access to some service. For example, in the Brave browser, ads can only be bought using basic attention token (BAT).
If tokens are worth money, then you can bank with them or at least do things that look very much like banking. Thus: decentralized finance.
Tokens proved to be the big use case for Ethereum, the second-biggest blockchain in the world. The term of art here is “ERC-20 tokens,” which refers to a software standard that allows token creators to write rules for them. Tokens can be used a few ways. Often, they are used as a form of money within a set of applications. So the idea for Kin was to create a token that web users could spend with each other at such tiny amounts that it would almost feel like they weren’t spending anything; that is, money for the internet.
Governance tokens are different. They are not like a token at a video-game arcade, as so many tokens were described in the past. They work more like certificates to serve in an ever-changing legislature in that they give holders the right to vote on changes to a protocol.
So on the platform that proved DeFi could fly, MakerDAO, holders of its governance token, MKR, vote almost every week on small changes to parameters that govern how much it costs to borrow and how much savers earn, and so on.
Read more: Why DeFi’s Billion-Dollar Milestone Matters
One thing all crypto tokens have in common, though, is they are tradable and they have a price. So, if tokens are worth money, then you can bank with them or at least do things that look very much like banking. Thus: decentralized finance.

What is DeFi?

Fair question. For folks who tuned out for a bit in 2018, we used to call this “open finance.” That construction seems to have faded, though, and “DeFi” is the new lingo.
In case that doesn’t jog your memory, DeFi is all the things that let you play with money, and the only identification you need is a crypto wallet.
On the normal web, you can’t buy a blender without giving the site owner enough data to learn your whole life history. In DeFi, you can borrow money without anyone even asking for your name.
I can explain this but nothing really brings it home like trying one of these applications. If you have an Ethereum wallet that has even $20 worth of crypto in it, go do something on one of these products. Pop over to Uniswap and buy yourself some FUN (a token for gambling apps) or WBTC (wrapped bitcoin). Go to MakerDAO and create $5 worth of DAI (a stablecoin that tends to be worth $1) out of the digital ether. Go to Compound and borrow $10 in USDC.
(Notice the very small amounts I’m suggesting. The old crypto saying “don’t put in more than you can afford to lose” goes double for DeFi. This stuff is uber-complex and a lot can go wrong. These may be “savings” products but they’re not for your retirement savings.)
Immature and experimental though it may be, the technology’s implications are staggering. On the normal web, you can’t buy a blender without giving the site owner enough data to learn your whole life history. In DeFi, you can borrow money without anyone even asking for your name.
DeFi applications don’t worry about trusting you because they have the collateral you put up to back your debt (on Compound, for instance, a $10 debt will require around $20 in collateral).
Read more: There Are More DAI on Compound Now Than There Are DAI in the World
If you do take this advice and try something, note that you can swap all these things back as soon as you’ve taken them out. Open the loan and close it 10 minutes later. It’s fine. Fair warning: It might cost you a tiny bit in fees, and the cost of using Ethereum itself right now is much higher than usual, in part due to this fresh new activity. But it’s nothing that should ruin a crypto user.
So what’s the point of borrowing for people who already have the money? Most people do it for some kind of trade. The most obvious example, to short a token (the act of profiting if its price falls). It’s also good for someone who wants to hold onto a token but still play the market.

Doesn’t running a bank take a lot of money up front?

It does, and in DeFi that money is largely provided by strangers on the internet. That’s why the startups behind these decentralized banking applications come up with clever ways to attract HODLers with idle assets.
Liquidity is the chief concern of all these different products. That is: How much money do they have locked in their smart contracts?
“In some types of products, the product experience gets much better if you have liquidity. Instead of borrowing from VCs or debt investors, you borrow from your users,” said Electric Capital managing partner Avichal Garg.
Let’s take Uniswap as an example. Uniswap is an “automated market maker,” or AMM (another DeFi term of art). This means Uniswap is a robot on the internet that is always willing to buy and it’s also always willing to sell any cryptocurrency for which it has a market.
On Uniswap, there is at least one market pair for almost any token on Ethereum. Behind the scenes, this means Uniswap can make it look like it is making a direct trade for any two tokens, which makes it easy for users, but it’s all built around pools of two tokens. And all these market pairs work better with bigger pools.

Why do I keep hearing about ‘pools’?

To illustrate why more money helps, let’s break down how Uniswap works.
Let’s say there was a market for USDC and DAI. These are two tokens (both stablecoins but with different mechanisms for retaining their value) that are meant to be worth $1 each all the time, and that generally tends to be true for both.
The price Uniswap shows for each token in any pooled market pair is based on the balance of each in the pool. So, simplifying this a lot for illustration’s sake, if someone were to set up a USDC/DAI pool, they should deposit equal amounts of both. In a pool with only 2 USDC and 2 DAI it would offer a price of 1 USDC for 1 DAI. But then imagine that someone put in 1 DAI and took out 1 USDC. Then the pool would have 1 USDC and 3 DAI. The pool would be very out of whack. A savvy investor could make an easy $0.50 profit by putting in 1 USDC and receiving 1.5 DAI. That’s a 50% arbitrage profit, and that’s the problem with limited liquidity.
(Incidentally, this is why Uniswap’s prices tend to be accurate, because traders watch it for small discrepancies from the wider market and trade them away for arbitrage profits very quickly.)
Read more: Uniswap V2 Launches With More Token-Swap Pairs, Oracle Service, Flash Loans
However, if there were 500,000 USDC and 500,000 DAI in the pool, a trade of 1 DAI for 1 USDC would have a negligible impact on the relative price. That’s why liquidity is helpful.
You can stick your assets on Compound and earn a little yield. But that’s not very creative. Users who look for angles to maximize that yield: those are the yield farmers.
Similar effects hold across DeFi, so markets want more liquidity. Uniswap solves this by charging a tiny fee on every trade. It does this by shaving off a little bit from each trade and leaving that in the pool (so one DAI would actually trade for 0.997 USDC, after the fee, growing the overall pool by 0.003 USDC). This benefits liquidity providers because when someone puts liquidity in the pool they own a share of the pool. If there has been lots of trading in that pool, it has earned a lot of fees, and the value of each share will grow.
And this brings us back to tokens.
Liquidity added to Uniswap is represented by a token, not an account. So there’s no ledger saying, “Bob owns 0.000000678% of the DAI/USDC pool.” Bob just has a token in his wallet. And Bob doesn’t have to keep that token. He could sell it. Or use it in another product. We’ll circle back to this, but it helps to explain why people like to talk about DeFi products as “money Legos.”

So how much money do people make by putting money into these products?

It can be a lot more lucrative than putting money in a traditional bank, and that’s before startups started handing out governance tokens.
Compound is the current darling of this space, so let’s use it as an illustration. As of this writing, a person can put USDC into Compound and earn 2.72% on it. They can put tether (USDT) into it and earn 2.11%. Most U.S. bank accounts earn less than 0.1% these days, which is close enough to nothing.
However, there are some caveats. First, there’s a reason the interest rates are so much juicier: DeFi is a far riskier place to park your money. There’s no Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) protecting these funds. If there were a run on Compound, users could find themselves unable to withdraw their funds when they wanted.
Plus, the interest is quite variable. You don’t know what you’ll earn over the course of a year. USDC’s rate is high right now. It was low last week. Usually, it hovers somewhere in the 1% range.
Similarly, a user might get tempted by assets with more lucrative yields like USDT, which typically has a much higher interest rate than USDC. (Monday morning, the reverse was true, for unclear reasons; this is crypto, remember.) The trade-off here is USDT’s transparency about the real-world dollars it’s supposed to hold in a real-world bank is not nearly up to par with USDC’s. A difference in interest rates is often the market’s way of telling you the one instrument is viewed as dicier than another.
Users making big bets on these products turn to companies Opyn and Nexus Mutual to insure their positions because there’s no government protections in this nascent space – more on the ample risks later on.
So users can stick their assets in Compound or Uniswap and earn a little yield. But that’s not very creative. Users who look for angles to maximize that yield: those are the yield farmers.

OK, I already knew all of that. What is yield farming?

Broadly, yield farming is any effort to put crypto assets to work and generate the most returns possible on those assets.
At the simplest level, a yield farmer might move assets around within Compound, constantly chasing whichever pool is offering the best APY from week to week. This might mean moving into riskier pools from time to time, but a yield farmer can handle risk.
“Farming opens up new price arbs [arbitrage] that can spill over to other protocols whose tokens are in the pool,” said Maya Zehavi, a blockchain consultant.
Because these positions are tokenized, though, they can go further.
This was a brand-new kind of yield on a deposit. In fact, it was a way to earn a yield on a loan. Who has ever heard of a borrower earning a return on a debt from their lender?
In a simple example, a yield farmer might put 100,000 USDT into Compound. They will get a token back for that stake, called cUSDT. Let’s say they get 100,000 cUSDT back (the formula on Compound is crazy so it’s not 1:1 like that but it doesn’t matter for our purposes here).
They can then take that cUSDT and put it into a liquidity pool that takes cUSDT on Balancer, an AMM that allows users to set up self-rebalancing crypto index funds. In normal times, this could earn a small amount more in transaction fees. This is the basic idea of yield farming. The user looks for edge cases in the system to eke out as much yield as they can across as many products as it will work on.
Right now, however, things are not normal, and they probably won’t be for a while.

Why is yield farming so hot right now?

Because of liquidity mining. Liquidity mining supercharges yield farming.
Liquidity mining is when a yield farmer gets a new token as well as the usual return (that’s the “mining” part) in exchange for the farmer’s liquidity.
“The idea is that stimulating usage of the platform increases the value of the token, thereby creating a positive usage loop to attract users,” said Richard Ma of smart-contract auditor Quantstamp.
The yield farming examples above are only farming yield off the normal operations of different platforms. Supply liquidity to Compound or Uniswap and get a little cut of the business that runs over the protocols – very vanilla.
But Compound announced earlier this year it wanted to truly decentralize the product and it wanted to give a good amount of ownership to the people who made it popular by using it. That ownership would take the form of the COMP token.
Lest this sound too altruistic, keep in mind that the people who created it (the team and the investors) owned more than half of the equity. By giving away a healthy proportion to users, that was very likely to make it a much more popular place for lending. In turn, that would make everyone’s stake worth much more.
So, Compound announced this four-year period where the protocol would give out COMP tokens to users, a fixed amount every day until it was gone. These COMP tokens control the protocol, just as shareholders ultimately control publicly traded companies.
Every day, the Compound protocol looks at everyone who had lent money to the application and who had borrowed from it and gives them COMP proportional to their share of the day’s total business.
The results were very surprising, even to Compound’s biggest promoters.
COMP’s value will likely go down, and that’s why some investors are rushing to earn as much of it as they can right now.
This was a brand-new kind of yield on a deposit into Compound. In fact, it was a way to earn a yield on a loan, as well, which is very weird: Who has ever heard of a borrower earning a return on a debt from their lender?
COMP’s value has consistently been well over $200 since it started distributing on June 15. We did the math elsewhere but long story short: investors with fairly deep pockets can make a strong gain maximizing their daily returns in COMP. It is, in a way, free money.
It’s possible to lend to Compound, borrow from it, deposit what you borrowed and so on. This can be done multiple times and DeFi startup Instadapp even built a tool to make it as capital-efficient as possible.
“Yield farmers are extremely creative. They find ways to ‘stack’ yields and even earn multiple governance tokens at once,” said Spencer Noon of DTC Capital.
COMP’s value spike is a temporary situation. The COMP distribution will only last four years and then there won’t be any more. Further, most people agree that the high price now is driven by the low float (that is, how much COMP is actually free to trade on the market – it will never be this low again). So the value will probably gradually go down, and that’s why savvy investors are trying to earn as much as they can now.
Appealing to the speculative instincts of diehard crypto traders has proven to be a great way to increase liquidity on Compound. This fattens some pockets but also improves the user experience for all kinds of Compound users, including those who would use it whether they were going to earn COMP or not.
As usual in crypto, when entrepreneurs see something successful, they imitate it. Balancer was the next protocol to start distributing a governance token, BAL, to liquidity providers. Flash loan provider bZx has announced a plan. Ren, Curve and Synthetix also teamed up to promote a liquidity pool on Curve.
It is a fair bet many of the more well-known DeFi projects will announce some kind of coin that can be mined by providing liquidity.
The case to watch here is Uniswap versus Balancer. Balancer can do the same thing Uniswap does, but most users who want to do a quick token trade through their wallet use Uniswap. It will be interesting to see if Balancer’s BAL token convinces Uniswap’s liquidity providers to defect.
So far, though, more liquidity has gone into Uniswap since the BAL announcement, according to its data site. That said, even more has gone into Balancer.

Did liquidity mining start with COMP?

No, but it was the most-used protocol with the most carefully designed liquidity mining scheme.
This point is debated but the origins of liquidity mining probably date back to Fcoin, a Chinese exchange that created a token in 2018 that rewarded people for making trades. You won’t believe what happened next! Just kidding, you will: People just started running bots to do pointless trades with themselves to earn the token.
Similarly, EOS is a blockchain where transactions are basically free, but since nothing is really free the absence of friction was an invitation for spam. Some malicious hacker who didn’t like EOS created a token called EIDOS on the network in late 2019. It rewarded people for tons of pointless transactions and somehow got an exchange listing.
These initiatives illustrated how quickly crypto users respond to incentives.
Read more: Compound Changes COMP Distribution Rules Following ‘Yield Farming’ Frenzy
Fcoin aside, liquidity mining as we now know it first showed up on Ethereum when the marketplace for synthetic tokens, Synthetix, announced in July 2019 an award in its SNX token for users who helped add liquidity to the sETH/ETH pool on Uniswap. By October, that was one of Uniswap’s biggest pools.
When Compound Labs, the company that launched the Compound protocol, decided to create COMP, the governance token, the firm took months designing just what kind of behavior it wanted and how to incentivize it. Even still, Compound Labs was surprised by the response. It led to unintended consequences such as crowding into a previously unpopular market (lending and borrowing BAT) in order to mine as much COMP as possible.
Just last week, 115 different COMP wallet addresses – senators in Compound’s ever-changing legislature – voted to change the distribution mechanism in hopes of spreading liquidity out across the markets again.

Is there DeFi for bitcoin?

Yes, on Ethereum.
Nothing has beaten bitcoin over time for returns, but there’s one thing bitcoin can’t do on its own: create more bitcoin.
A smart trader can get in and out of bitcoin and dollars in a way that will earn them more bitcoin, but this is tedious and risky. It takes a certain kind of person.
DeFi, however, offers ways to grow one’s bitcoin holdings – though somewhat indirectly.
A long HODLer is happy to gain fresh BTC off their counterparty’s short-term win. That’s the game.
For example, a user can create a simulated bitcoin on Ethereum using BitGo’s WBTC system. They put BTC in and get the same amount back out in freshly minted WBTC. WBTC can be traded back for BTC at any time, so it tends to be worth the same as BTC.
Then the user can take that WBTC, stake it on Compound and earn a few percent each year in yield on their BTC. Odds are, the people who borrow that WBTC are probably doing it to short BTC (that is, they will sell it immediately, buy it back when the price goes down, close the loan and keep the difference).
A long HODLer is happy to gain fresh BTC off their counterparty’s short-term win. That’s the game.

How risky is it?

Enough.
“DeFi, with the combination of an assortment of digital funds, automation of key processes, and more complex incentive structures that work across protocols – each with their own rapidly changing tech and governance practices – make for new types of security risks,” said Liz Steininger of Least Authority, a crypto security auditor. “Yet, despite these risks, the high yields are undeniably attractive to draw more users.”
We’ve seen big failures in DeFi products. MakerDAO had one so bad this year it’s called “Black Thursday.” There was also the exploit against flash loan provider bZx. These things do break and when they do money gets taken.
As this sector gets more robust, we could see token holders greenlighting more ways for investors to profit from DeFi niches.
Right now, the deal is too good for certain funds to resist, so they are moving a lot of money into these protocols to liquidity mine all the new governance tokens they can. But the funds – entities that pool the resources of typically well-to-do crypto investors – are also hedging. Nexus Mutual, a DeFi insurance provider of sorts, told CoinDesk it has maxed out its available coverage on these liquidity applications. Opyn, the trustless derivatives maker, created a way to short COMP, just in case this game comes to naught.
And weird things have arisen. For example, there’s currently more DAI on Compound than have been minted in the world. This makes sense once unpacked but it still feels dicey to everyone.
That said, distributing governance tokens might make things a lot less risky for startups, at least with regard to the money cops.
“Protocols distributing their tokens to the public, meaning that there’s a new secondary listing for SAFT tokens, [gives] plausible deniability from any security accusation,” Zehavi wrote. (The Simple Agreement for Future Tokens was a legal structure favored by many token issuers during the ICO craze.)
Whether a cryptocurrency is adequately decentralized has been a key feature of ICO settlements with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).

What’s next for yield farming? (A prediction)

COMP turned out to be a bit of a surprise to the DeFi world, in technical ways and others. It has inspired a wave of new thinking.
“Other projects are working on similar things,” said Nexus Mutual founder Hugh Karp. In fact, informed sources tell CoinDesk brand-new projects will launch with these models.
We might soon see more prosaic yield farming applications. For example, forms of profit-sharing that reward certain kinds of behavior.
Imagine if COMP holders decided, for example, that the protocol needed more people to put money in and leave it there longer. The community could create a proposal that shaved off a little of each token’s yield and paid that portion out only to the tokens that were older than six months. It probably wouldn’t be much, but an investor with the right time horizon and risk profile might take it into consideration before making a withdrawal.
(There are precedents for this in traditional finance: A 10-year Treasury bond normally yields more than a one-month T-bill even though they’re both backed by the full faith and credit of Uncle Sam, a 12-month certificate of deposit pays higher interest than a checking account at the same bank, and so on.)
As this sector gets more robust, its architects will come up with ever more robust ways to optimize liquidity incentives in increasingly refined ways. We could see token holders greenlighting more ways for investors to profit from DeFi niches.
Questions abound for this nascent industry: What will MakerDAO do to restore its spot as the king of DeFi? Will Uniswap join the liquidity mining trend? Will anyone stick all these governance tokens into a decentralized autonomous organization (DAO)? Or would that be a yield farmers co-op?
Whatever happens, crypto’s yield farmers will keep moving fast. Some fresh fields may open and some may soon bear much less luscious fruit.
But that’s the nice thing about farming in DeFi: It is very easy to switch fields.
submitted by pascalbernoulli to Yield_Farming [link] [comments]

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